Archive for the ‘ Book Reviews ’ Category

Book Review- Globish by Robert McCrum

Roy Blount Jr. in the NYT Sunday Book Review:

McCrum is bullish on Globish: the reign of English as the world’s lingua franca or default tongue, “the worldwide dialect of the third millennium,” the language in which China trades with Zambia, the language in which a Greek watching CNN phones a friend from the Middle East to get him off the London bus he’s riding before it explodes. English, the author argues convincingly in “Globish,” will not break up into new languages and die, as Latin did, because it is sustained by the Internet, global marketing, mass consumerism, instant communications, international soccer, texting, and (McCrum is English) cricket and the legacy of Winston Churchill.

The language has also been sustained by many “a nice irony”:

¶ When the British Empire was drastically reduced by the American Revolution, the potential of the English language was enormously expanded.

¶ As India was suffering under the Raj, it was also absorbing enough linguistic and cultural Anglophilia to give it a big competitive advantage over China today.

¶ When “the British Empire went to war against the kaiser and then against Nazi Germany, dispatched its armies and navy . . . and also evacuated its young ones from the cities,” the mother tongue’s hegemony was bolstered because “the children of empire were prepared. Years of colonial service from Calcutta to Hong Kong had schooled successive generations in ‘maternal deprivation trauma.’ ”

¶ Cold-war propaganda “sowed the seeds of the world’s English in parts of the world previously unreceptive to British or American cultural colonialism.”

¶ And, as McCrum sees it, the “disdain for international agreements” on the part of George W. Bush’s administration “had the vital effect of decoupling the English language from what cultural conservatives would always see as American imperialism.” Bushian detachment had a positive effect because “a global information network, and a global market, require a global language, but one that is not, overtly, the instrument of empire.”

That last irony’s niceness rests upon considerable spin. “In the absence of an American mission, apart from the almost meaningless ‘war on terror,’ the world was left to get on with its own multi­farious business,” McCrum writes. But if the English phrase in question is almost meaningless, then surely the business of putting vast resources behind it, counter­productively, is no contribution to English’s credibility.

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Book Review – The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Relationship with Apartheid South Africa by Sasha Polakow-Suransky

Bernard Potter in London Review of Books:

This book attracted a lot of attention when it first appeared in the US in May because it apparently showed Israel offering to sell nuclear weapons to apartheid South Africa. That happened some time ago, but it is bound to be an embarrassment to present-day Israel, especially on the eve of high-level non-proliferation negotiations focusing on the Middle East. (It is less embarrassing, of course, to the new South Africa.) Hence Shimon Peres’s immediate denial of the allegation, and he should know: if there was such an offer, he – as Israel’s defence minister at the time, and the architect of the nuclear weapons programme at Dimona – would have been involved.

The charge centres on some ambiguous statements in a minute of a meeting between the two countries’ top defence officials on 31 March 1975. Sasha Polakow-Suransky argues that it is their very ambiguity which indicates that something fishy was going on. This is backed up by a memo from the South African Defence Force’s chief of staff, of exactly the same date, ‘enthusiastically’ welcoming the prospect of South Africa’s acquiring nuclear weapons. At the very least this seems to show that the South Africans believed Israel was offering them the bomb. In the end the ‘offer’ came to nothing: P.W. Botha thought it would be too expensive. But there are further indications of nuclear weapons co-operation between the two countries later: some tritium that Israel supplied to South Africa in 1977-78; a ‘double flash’ over the South Atlantic in September 1979, which is apparently the tell-tale signature of a nuclear explosion, and if so was most likely to have been an Israeli test launched from near the South African coast; secret exchange visits by nuclear scientists; and so on. And one way or another South Africa did eventually acquire nuclear warheads. All this is, I agree, suspicious, though I’m not an expert. Nor do I feel I can necessarily trust Israeli denials in this area. We have known for some time that Israel consistently dissembled, in the 1970s and 1980s, about its wider alliance with South Africa: this is the far more interesting puzzle that Polakow-Suransky’s well-researched, readable and (I think) balanced book sets out to unravel.

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